What Are the Abrahamic and Davidic Covenants?

The fulfillment of the Abrahamic and Davidic covenants is pivotal to the question of the millennium.  Both amillennialists and premillennialists agree that God made promises to Abraham throughout the book of Genesis.  “The Lord had said to Abram, ‘Leave your country, your people and your father’s household and go to the land I will show you.  I will make you into a great nation and I will bless you; I will make your name great, and you will be a blessing.  I will bless those who bless you, and whoever curses you I will curse; and all peoples on earth will be blessed through you’” (Gen. 12:1-3 NIV).  With regard to the land, the Lord said, “To your descendants I give this land, from the river of Egypt to the great river, the Euphrates” (Gen. 15:19).  Further, this land was to be given as an “everlasting possession to [Abraham] and [his] descendants” (Gen. 17:8).

The components of the covenant are as follows: (1) God promised to make Abraham and his descendants into a great nation, (2) God promised that Abraham and his descendants would inherit and possess the land between the river of Egypt and the Euphrates, (3) God promised that Abraham and his descendants would bless the peoples of the world, and (4) God promised that these blessings would be perpetual.  What separates amillennialists from premillennialists is the question of fulfillment.  If the covenant has already been fulfilled, then a major pillar of the premillennial argument crumbles.  However, if the covenant has not been fulfilled, then God must still follow through on his promises.

Likewise, the Davidic covenant contained clear promises from God to David and his descendants.  Norman Geisler, in Systematic Theology, vol. 4, Church, Last Things, writes, “As the Abrahamic covenant centers around the land, the Davidic covenant centers around the throne.  The former provides the land and the nation; the latter provides a king to rule over the kingdom.”  The primary passage which explicates the Davidic promises is found in 2 Samuel 7.

The Lord declares to you that the Lord himself will establish a house for you: When your days are over and you rest with your fathers, I will raise up your offspring to succeed you, who will come from your own body, and I will establish his kingdom.  He is the one who will build a house for my Name, and I will establish the throne of his kingdom forever.  I will be his father, and he will be my son.  When he does wrong, I will punish him with the rod of men, with floggings inflicted by men.  But my love will never be taken away from him, as I took it away from Saul, whom I removed from before you.  Your house and your kingdom will endure forever before me; your throne will be established forever. (2 Sam. 7:11-16)

The throne of Israel is promised to David and his offspring and it is promised to them forever.  Again, amillennialists and premillennialists differ as to whether this covenant has been fulfilled.